Evidence to support the idea that prednisone causes increased fat storage and muscle loss is derived from a study by Al-Jaouni et al. (11), who randomized a group of overweight/obese subjects to prednisone for 2 months or placebo, recovery hair prednisone loss. Subjects were instructed to cut fat from 30% to 10% below baseline. A 6-mo follow-up dietary examination revealed that the subjects on the prednisone treatment lost significantly less amount of fat (by 7.9%, P less than 0.0001) and lean lean mass (by 10.6%, P less than 0.0001) than those on the placebo (4.75% ± 12.5 vs. 5.9% ± 10.5 kg, P less than 0.05). More research is needed to determine whether the findings of Al-Jaouni et al. (11) extend to subjects with higher fat-to-muscle ratios, and we do not know which of the two hypocaloric conditions is superior in mediating this process.
The effects of high-fat diet and low-carbohydrate diet on body composition have been well documented in overweight women (5). A recent study assessed the effects of a 30% low-carbohydrate diet versus an alternate-day calorie restriction with 50% of energy from carbohydrate, compared with normal-energy restricted macronutrient ratios (7). On a low-carbohydrate diet at the beginning of the study (6 wk), the subjects maintained weight loss over the subsequent 7–9 wk (P less than 0.05). After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, including caloric intake, BMI, and smoking, carbohydrate intake declined further for subjects in the low-carbohydrate group and was no longer statistically significant at the end of the 6–9 wk (P less than 0.05); weight and BMI remained stable for those on the low-carbohydrate diet. After controlling for a wide variety of covariates, however, the results support the hypothesis that diet composition is essential for maintaining weight loss even in overweight and obese subjects with carbohydrate restricted diets. It has been proposed that a low-carbohydrate diet does not promote loss of adipose tissue or fat because it does not restrict total energy intake to near-zero levels (12). In our study, lean and fat mass remained unchanged in both low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate groups, whereas body composition did not change. This discrepancy between these results, in which lean and fat mass decreased in the low-carbohydrate group but remained stable over 7–9 wk, suggests that the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on body
Some doctors try to speed recovery with topical corticosteroid drops or steroid shots directly into the areas of hair loss on the scalp, prednisone hair loss recovery.
However, if scalp hair isn’t growing rapidly, it can be a real problem that can be hard to treat.
But if the scalp hair doesn’t grow rapidly enough to keep you from wearing plastic surgery, there are other things you can use to help heal.
While the minimum dose for steroid-induced bone loss is unknown, reduced bone density and fractures have occurred with doses as low as 5mg of prednisone per dayover a 20-week period.26-28 There are no adequate trials in the clinic to determine whether the recommended dose to prevent osteoporosis is 2.5mg/day or 10mg/day.29 Low doses of steroid may be needed to prevent osteopenia in postmenopausal women whose bone mineral density increases.40
There is controversy in the field of osteoporosis as to the maximum acceptable dose of estrogen. As with other health issues, studies are needed to establish the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and impact on bone density of prescribed doses of estrogen. The available data are insufficient to advise on a specific dose. However, the minimum effective dose has been estimated to be 15mg of estradiol as a single dose to prevent breast cancer.21 In a cohort study of 803 postmenopausal women with normal bone mass, only 20% received estrogen at the recommended dose.31 In a placebo-controlled trial with the same doses of estrogen, a higher dose of 30mg/day was associated with a 50% increased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, when the same doses of estrogen were substituted for the natural progestin equine estrogen cyproterone acetate, the risk of breast cancer was no different.27 In the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) cohort, a dose of 5mg/day of estradiol was found to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.26 A dose of 60mg/day or higher increased the risk of breast cancer to 13%.10 However, a recent case-control study in South Korean women with breast cancer showed no evidence for estrogen-progestin effects at higher doses.30 The incidence of endometrial and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal Japanese women using postmenopausal hormones has been estimated at 13 for every 100 women with the highest dose of hormone and 1 for every 15 women using estrogen-only pills.31
In summary, while there are no adequate data on the safety and efficacy of oral estrogen for postmenopausal health, the recommended dose to reduce fracture risk is 2.5mg estradiol as part of a multivitamin/mineral supplement and other dietary nutrients.
Evidence to support the idea that prednisone causes increased fat storage and muscle loss is derived from a study by Al-Jaouni et al(1992), who administered prednisone to 11 moderately obese men for 6 weeks. They found that those who received prednisone showed increased muscle mass, increased body fat percentage, and increased body fat and visceral fat, with an association with increased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased serum levels of free fatty acids. These investigators have reported the existence of a threshold of prednisone use where changes in fat accumulation occur. Their data, however, do not support the idea that prednisone acts as a primary cause of fat accumulation and that the use of prednisone is sufficient to induce lipogenic changes. Although the data from this study are not direct, they do point to the occurrence of an increase in fat mass after prednisone treatment. Nevertheless, the data from this study (and many others, see Table 5) are not consistent with the hypothesis that prednisone is the primary cause of the increase in lipogenic response.
Table 5. Reference Men and Women n (%) n (%) Body fat (%) Body fat percentage (%) Body fat % Total body water (kg) 947 (97.5) 1644 (100) 903 (98.5) 1385 (100) Total body nitrogen (g) 904 (97.3) 1642 (100) 896 (98.3) 1404 (100) Leptin (ng/mL) 2047 (100) 864 (98.8) 1648 (100) 1828 (101) C-reactive protein (mg/L) 856 (100) 1023 (98.2) 1661 (100) 1032 (99.4) Leptin (μg/L) 1026 (100) 857 (99.4) 1658 (100) 1176 (100) Age (y) 64.8 ± 17.1 66 ± 16.7 60.6 ± 14.5 62.5 ± 17.4 Sex (F) 54.3 ± 10.6 53.1 ± 10.1 54.8 ± 10.9 59.8 ± 12.3 Weight (kg) 86.3 ± 8.4 83.3 ± 7.8 89.1 ± 9.1 84.1 ± 9.8 BMI (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 2.3 24 ± 1.2 24.6 ± 1.6 24.5 ± 2.4 Systolic BP (mm Hg) 124 ± 13 123 ± 12 121 ± 12 124 ± 10
Some doctors try to speed recovery with topical corticosteroid drops or steroid shots directly into the areas of hair loss on the scalp. If your doctor requires a more permanent solution for growths that are still sensitive to treatment, try these products:
To reduce hair loss (especially if you have growths that are sensitive to the products), try to keep the amount of hair that is shaved down to 1/4 inch or less per month to help achieve maximum results, and try to use only one or two products daily when you shave your head.
If there is hair growth on your scalp that can’t be controlled by conventional treatments, try these options:
The more hair you have and the longer you shave it, the better you’ll get at controlling hair loss. Keep using regular treatments with little or no dryness and you’ll see hair growth speed up.
To control hair loss without a direct hair growth treatment, follow your beard conditioners closely (not on your scalp at night!), or use a combination or top-tie technique instead.
While the minimum dose for steroid-induced bone loss is unknown, reduced bone density and fractures have occurred with doses as low as 5mg of prednisone per day.[12,13] A single 5mg dose of prednisone, however, appears to have no affect on the osteoporotic markers of bone loss found in a cross-sectional study of over 1000 women, where those who took 5mg daily experienced a loss of 12-24% of bone mass. A similar study of women taking 10mg of prednisone at 4-days intervals with a dose of 40mg, however, noted no change in bone density measured at an estimated age of 57-60 years.
Pristiq (prednisone) has been reported to also inhibit growth hormone and IGF in vitro. However, these studies found no significant effects on IGF-1 or growth hormone in vivo (when applied to human skeletal muscle) despite a 20-50% reduction in IGF-1 in the testicular tissues of rats subjected to 4 injections over 36 hours. This could be a secondary effect as growth hormone levels seem unaffected.
Pristiq is a growth hormone agonist that may be of direct or indirect inhibitory effect to growth hormone.
7 Skeletal Muscle and Bone Regeneration
7.1. Bone Marrow
Pristiq is a product that contains the phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride salt of prednisone. This salt is known to be an inhibitor of insulin and reduces insulin secretion from the pancreas. Furthermore, it inhibits IGF-1 and IGF-2 secretion, and is an inducer of growth hormone release.
In regards to collagen synthesis, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibits s-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis but does not affect SAM-1 metabolism as it increases SAM-1 and SAM-2 in vitro.
In regards to skeletal muscle, the inhibition of glucose uptake at 3% of the platelet response to insulin (a marker for insulin resistance) appears independent of the dose of prednisone used.
A study conducted in obese women in hyperinsulinemia (high levels of insulin), while using a high dose of prednisone (50mg), did not observe significant changes in IGF-1 or IGF-2 and failed to find a decrease in the ratio of insulin to glucose, a function indicative of skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
When comparing the effects of 1g/kg bodyweight prednisone vs. 0
Prednisone hair loss recovery
While the minimum dose for steroid-induced bone loss is unknown, reduced bone density and fractures have occurred with doses as low as 5mg of prednisone per day.5
It is important to note that most of the side effects associated with steroid use are mild and mostly resolve in many patients with little or no medical reason. The most important consideration is adherence to the prescribed dosage and dosing protocol, which may be difficult to do well in children and adolescents.
The safety of steroids has been a topic of frequent debate within the osteoporosis community. The FDA concluded that the risk of bone loss was very low and suggested that high doses of prednisone for long-term use were not necessary for long-term bone health.6
For additional reading:
- Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Steroid Safety
- Pediatric Osteoporosis
- Steroid Drugs-Bone Disease
- Steroid Abuse
- The Bottom Line on Steroids
Pediatric osteoporosis can significantly limit a child’s ability to be active and can be difficult to treat. There is little consensus on how much and when steroids should be administered for the treatment of pediatric osteoporosis. In addition, the evidence behind many treatments for steroid-induced bone loss is mixed and the amount of steroids needed can vary from person to person. The bottom line, however, is that if a child consistently shows a high incidence of bone loss and pain because a child is taking steroids for osteoporosis, a child should be evaluated for a medical condition such as heart disease, prednisone hair loss recovery.
Evidence to support the idea that prednisone causes increased fat storage and muscle loss is derived from a study by Al-Jaouni et al. In this investigation, subjects received both prednisone and a placebo over four weeks. At the end of the supplementation period, subjects were divided into two groups: those who received prednisone, and those who received control. It was found that prednisone-treated groups had significantly higher percentage body fat than their placebo-treated counterparts (+11% vs. +9%), as well as significantly higher percentage body fat (±4 versus. -1%), as the number of total fat cells increased (2.1 vs. 1.5% vs. -2%; see ). This study demonstrated that prednisone is a highly effective weight loss drug. In the literature reviewed above, several studies have shown that prednisone was better than any other known compound for the treatment of obesity [35,40]. For example, in one study, an addition of 20 mg/kg prednisone decreased body weight (by 2.3 pounds; see ) and increased fat-free mass (+1.4 kg; +1.3 kg versus. -2%). Another study noted that a daily application of 24 mg prednisone increased insulin sensitivity by +25-fold and improved the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 . In another study, one group took 8.5 mg/kg prednisone, and the other group took placebo, for 24 weeks. In this study, there was no significant difference between the groups in body weight or fat-free mass after 48 weeks (1.7 pounds (±0.2% of baseline weight) and 1.6 pounds (±0.2%) for the prednisone group versus 1.0 pounds (±0.2%) for the placebo group). In a follow-up trial, subjects were again given one of 2 diets: the prednisone placebo diet, and a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. In this latter study, subjects were divided into 2 groups: those who received prednisone and those who received the high-protein low-carbohydrate diet for 4-weeks. The weight loss on the high-protein low-carbohydrate diet was 4.6 pounds (±0.2%) over the 4 weeks, compared with only 1.8 pounds (±0.1%) in the prednisone group (see ). The effect of prednisone was more pronounced for the group with the highest protein intake, as prednis
Some doctors try to speed recovery with topical corticosteroid drops or steroid shots directly into the areas of hair loss on the scalp. It’s not known whether these treatments have therapeutic effects.
Fluoride is taken in the form of sodium fluoride (Brinton) from mineral water. This can cause headaches, a sore throat, and gastrointestinal problems. Taking supplements containing sodium fluoride can reduce those side effects.
Fluoride can also decrease the natural production of thyroid hormone. It can also reduce and reduce the production of and increase the amount of sperm in the semen. You’re more likely to develop infertility if you’re taking thyroid hormone, so if you’re taking thyroid hormone, try to avoid taking fluoride supplements.
Other medications that contain fluoride are:
Sutrin XR (Heparin XR).
Doxycycline HCl (Procardia HCL).
Fluid Management Advice
Your doctor will discuss any health condition you may have with you. When possible, he will suggest ways to manage or prevent problems using an anti-fungal agent.
Your doctor may suggest taking a drug called azoles (for example, azole penicillin) if you have a serious allergy to aspirin.
Your doctor may prescribe corticosteroids or other steroids when you have liver disease, a liver disorder, kidney disease, or if there’s a risk of a blood clot in a blood vessel, among other conditions.
Your doctor may also tell you about anti-androgen medications that reduce the amount of testosterone you produce. These include androsterone (Aruca Prostate) and androstanediol (Levonorgestrel).